20 Mar ATP
- Respiration is the process which energy which is released. Cells do not obtain their energy directly from glucose this comes from ATP.
- ATP is referred to as the energy currency of the cell.
- ATP consists of the following structure :
- The nucleotide base adenosine
- A ribose sugar
- Three phosphate groups
- ATP goes to the part of the cell which requires energy
- ATP is made from one ADP and one phosphate group- with the enzyme ATP hydrolase.
- This undergoes a hydrolysis reaction where a phosphate bond is broken where energy is released.
- Most ATP is generated from electrical potential energy- this energy is from the transfer of electrons utilised by electron carriers in the mitochondria and the chloroplasts.
- The enzyme which synthesises ATP is called ATP synthase.
- Energy needed for ATP is required by active transport- an example of this is the sodium potassium pump which has binding sites for Na, ATP and potassium.
- In this the protein is an ATPase- involving hydrolysis of ATP to ADP to the phosphate which requires energy to be released which moves the pump.